Controlling Income and Estate Taxes
Income taxes and estate taxes are different for your various retirement investments. If you understand the tax status of your investments, you can make better decisions about when and how much you withdraw from various accounts.
Retirement Accounts and Income Taxes
At any age, money you take out of an employer retirement plan, such as a 401(k) or a 403(b), or a non-Roth IRA, is subject to ordinary income tax, just like stock dividends or CD interest. A few notes about this:
- At age 59½, you can start withdrawing from these retirement plans with no penalty. All you have to worry about is paying income tax on your retirement withdrawals. If you withdraw before 59½, you may be subject to a 10 percent early withdrawal penalty.
- You can control how much or how little you withdraw every year, up until age 70. By controlling how much you withdraw, you can control the amount of income taxes you owe.
- Once you reach age 70½, you must begin taking required minimum distributions each year from most employer plans and non-Roth IRAs. The IRS requires that you take out a certain amount — calculated by the employer plan or IRA provider — each year, based on your age. You must be careful to withdraw at least your annual required withdrawal amount, because if you take less, there is a 50 percent penalty on the difference between what you actually take out and what you should take out.
Roth IRAs and Income Taxes
Money withdrawn from a Roth IRA is treated differently:
- Assuming you are past age 59½ and have had a Roth IRA account open for five or more years, any money — principal and earnings — you take out is income tax free. (If you are under age 59½, you always can take out principal contributions without tax or penalty, but not any earnings.)
- As the original owner of the Roth IRA, you do not have to start taking withdrawals at age 70½.
- You never have to take money out of your Roth IRA. You can leave it all for your beneficiaries regardless of how long you live.
Retirement Accounts, Roth IRAs, and Estate Taxes
Estate taxes can impact retirement accounts. However, under current federal tax law (as of 2018), very few Americans will be subject to estate tax upon death. All forms of retirement accounts (employer plans, traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs) will be included in your estate and may be subject to estate tax. In 2018, your estate can have total assets (retirement and non-retirement) up to $11.2 million and not owe any federal estate tax.
Estate tax rates currently are higher than ordinary income tax rates with a top estate tax rate of 40 percent. Therefore, if the total value of your estate is kept under the current year’s dollar limit, you are likely to save your heirs significant estate tax dollars. While you can’t do much to lower your retirement account assets without triggering income tax, an attorney or financial planner can help you find ways to shrink your nonretirement assets for estate purposes and lower potential estate taxes.