Tips For Rolling Over A 401k After Leaving Your Job
With increasing wages and a competitive job market, recent years have seen many individuals transitioning between jobs. Consequently, a significant number of job changers might possess a 401(k) retirement plan linked to a former employer.
Thankfully, these employer-sponsored retirement savings accounts are intended to be transferable. Nevertheless, the process of transferring your 401(k) and determining the optimal timing might present unexpected challenges.
Amidst job changes or layoffs, likely, your 401(k) account isn’t the foremost concern. Nonetheless, incorporating this financial aspect into your relocation plans, even if you don’t address it immediately, can yield benefits. When you’re prepared to concentrate on what to do with your former 401(k), here are eight crucial factors that demand your attention.
In Case of an Outstanding 401(k) Loan
Have you utilized a 401(k) loan? If you find yourself departing from your company, whether by choice or not, a viable option is repaying the loan to an IRA. Under the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, you have until your personal tax return deadline of the subsequent year, including extensions, to contribute the repayment amount to an IRA, as elucidated by Mat Sorensen, CEO of Directed Individual Retirement Account and Directed Trust Company.
Should you be unable or choose not to settle the loan within the specified timeframe, the outstanding sum could be deducted from your vested account balance, constituting a “loan offset,” according to Ian Berger, IRA analyst with Ed Slott and Company. Wayne Bogosian, co-author of “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to 401(k) Plans,” emphasizes the need to remember that outstanding loans must be repaid.
If this were not done, the loan amount would be considered income and might be subject to income taxes. Additionally, individuals under the age of 59 ½ might be subjected to a supplementary 10 percent penalty on the borrowed sum, adds Bogosian.
While taking a loan from your 401(k) can be a suitable solution for those without income sources due to unemployment, in need of funds for medical expenses, or purchasing their first home, thorough consideration is vital before proceeding.
In instances where repaying the loan to your 401(k) is unfeasible, the following alternatives, apart from the aforementioned potential tax implications, remain applicable.
Exploring 401(k) Options Upon Departure
Upon leaving your employer, a range of choices becomes available:
Maintain the account with the current provider.
Opt for a rollover to your new employer’s 401(k) plan, either on a pre-tax or after-tax basis.
Transfer the funds into a traditional or Roth IRA outside of your new employer’s plan.
Receive a lump sum distribution (cash payout).
However, if your account holds less than $1,000, your former employer may proceed with a simple cash payout.
The optimal decision for you depends on your unique circumstances and aspirations. Consider the following factors:
Your Present Account Balance
The concern of facing collection actions, as workplace retirement plans offer creditor protection not provided by IRAs.
The quality of your new company’s retirement plan compared to your former plan, encompasses investment choices, fees, and loan availability.
The Range of Investment Options Accessible through an IRA outside of your Employer’s Plan.
The encouraging aspect is that you aren’t compelled to make immediate choices regarding your existing 401(k). Consulting a financial advisor before determining your course of action might be advisable.
Potential Options for Your 401(k)
When Changing Jobs
Navigating job transitions can be daunting, particularly during uncertain times. If you’ve experienced job loss and are focused on re-employment, addressing your 401(k) might not be an immediate priority. However, eventually, deciding what to do with your 401(k) will become essential.
For balances exceeding $5,000, retaining your funds within the current plan is a viable option, affording time to make a well-informed choice. This approach doesn’t necessitate an immediate transfer. Starting from 2024, this threshold will increase to $7,000 due to revisions introduced by the SECURE Act 2.0.
Upon starting a new job, it’s imperative to promptly enroll in your new employer’s 401(k) plan, regardless of the balance in your former plan. Even if your new employer implements an automatic opt-in mechanism with a delay of one to three months, relying solely on this might lead to missing out on 30 to 90 days of contributions and matching funds, as cautioned by Bogosian.
Approximately six months into your new role, once you’ve gained familiarity with your job and plan to stay, you’ll be better equipped to compare your previous 401(k) with the new one, considering investment diversity and costs.
What if your old 401(k) holds a balance below $5,000? Your former employer could direct your funds to an IRA in your name or provide a cash disbursement (cashing you out) for balances less than $1,000. Some companies have implemented auto-portability, transferring small balances to your new employer’s plan automatically. Verify if this applies by consulting your HR Department or plan sponsor. Irrespective, the SECURE Act 2.0 permits the transfer of small 401(k) balances into a default IRA, which can subsequently be shifted to your new employer’s plan.
Evaluate Plan Costs
Comparing the costs of investments between different companies’ 401(k) plans or an IRA used to be complex. However, with the requirement to disclose fees and costs, a direct comparison is now possible. When assessing plan costs, request the participant fee disclosure for each plan. This document unveils all fees, both evident and concealed, tied to each plan. Scrutinize your investments and intended investments to gauge expenses. This will assist in determining whether to retain your old 401(k) with your former employer, transfer it to your new employer’s plan, or roll it into an IRA.
Monitor Your Former 401(k)
If you choose to leave an account with a past employer, remain engaged with both the account and the company. People switch jobs more frequently nowadays, which can lead to multiple unattended accounts. Peggy Cabaniss, retired co-founder of HC Financial Advisors, highlights the importance of not leaving accounts unattended. She recounts an instance where a client left an account behind after changing jobs, and years later, the company went bankrupt. While the account remained intact, navigating the bureaucracy to transfer it was a lengthy process. Vigilance and proper administration are key to avoiding such scenarios.
Continuously review your statements, manage account-related paperwork, monitor the company’s performance, and ensure your address is updated with the 401(k) plan sponsor. Staying informed about the plan’s performance is crucial, as you might choose a different path for your savings in the future.
Navigate the Transition
Should you decide to move your funds by rolling them into your new employer’s plan, there are several avenues for assistance. If you’re already contributing to the new plan, the rollover will be facilitated by it. If not, contact your new employer’s HR Department to enroll and learn the rollover process.
Dedicated personnel in all plans are available to assist with rollovers. They are knowledgeable in this field and can make the transfer go smoothly. They’ll guide you through the necessary paperwork and steps.
Once released from your old plan, you have 60 days to deposit the funds into a new retirement account. Tax fines could apply if this is not done. If you receive a check made out to you or the new custodian, do NOT cash it. Swiftly deliver it to the new custodian.
Maintain records of your interactions and follow-ups. Ensure you have written confirmation once your money is safely transferred to its new home.
Rolling into an IRA? Ensure a Smooth Transition
Opting to roll over your 401(k) into an IRA involves guidance from your IRA sponsor or advisor. They will facilitate the process to guarantee that your funds reach the intended destination promptly, adhering to the same 60-day reinvestment deadline.
It’s essential to confirm that your new broker or advisor possesses rollover experience, particularly if your 401(k) includes company stock. Why? When company stock is rolled into an IRA, it’s liquidated and may later be taxed as ordinary income upon distribution, potentially leading to higher tax obligations.
As advised earlier, remain diligent until your funds are securely transferred to their new haven and maintain evidence of the transaction, usually accessible and verified through the IRA provider’s website.
Beware of Cashing Out a 401(k)
While the intellectual understanding cautions against cashing out retirement accounts, many individuals still succumb to the temptation. Although being compelled to exit your former plan due to your account balance is possible, it’s unwise to cash the check for non-retirement purposes. Ultimately, your financial future is better served by rolling the funds into an IRA or, if applicable, your new employer’s 401(k) plan.
In a 2020 Alight survey, a prominent provider of human capital and business solutions unveiled that 4 out of 10 individuals cashed out their balances after termination between 2008 and 2017. Approximately 80 percent of those with balances under $1,000 cashed out, while 62 percent with balances ranging from $1,000 to $5,000 did the same.
Considering historical rates of return, a $3,000 cash-out at age 24 results in a $23,000 reduction in your projected account balance at age 67, a notable 5 percent difference. Even a modest investment in a retirement vehicle today can yield substantial long-term benefits.
Determining Your 401(k)
Entitlement Upon Departure
Upon leaving an employer, you retain the entirety of your contributions to the 401(k) plan. However, the extent of entitlement to an employer match hinges on the plan’s structure and the vesting period in place. A vesting schedule denotes the duration required for ownership (or vesting) in employer contributions. If you’re fully vested, you receive all company contributions made on your behalf.
Should you not fulfill the necessary time requirement, your receipt of employer contributions might be a percentage, in line with the vesting schedule of the plan. Any remaining funds allocated to you are reclaimed by the company. Most 401(k) providers disclose the extent of full vesting in your balance. If uncertain, reaching out for clarification is advisable.
Important Reminder: How to Roll Over Your 401K After Leaving Your Job
After departing from your job, you might be considering rolling over your 401K to ensure your retirement funds are properly managed. However, it’s critical to understand how this process is taxed, as well as the specific tax ramifications and creditor protection involved. A guide to navigating the rollover process is provided below. Here’s a guide to navigating the rollover process, taking into account different tax implications and potential tax benefits.
Understand Employer Contributions and Vesting
Remember that you’re entitled to the contributions you made into your 401K, while employer contributions may have vesting requirements. Fully vested employer contributions are fully yours, but if not, you might receive a portion based on the vesting schedule. Any unvested funds could be forfeited back to your previous employer.
Consider Qualified Distributions
Rollovers into an IRA or a new employer-sponsored plan avoid immediate taxation, allowing your funds to grow tax-free. It’s important to note that a Roth 401K has different tax implications – contributions are made post-tax, resulting in tax-free qualified distributions upon retirement.
Be Mindful of Taxable Income
You will need to pay taxes on the money you take out and if you’re younger than 59 1/2, you can also be subject to an early withdrawal penalty of 10%. Additionally, if you cash out, you won’t have the tax-deferred earnings to support your retirement goals. You can leave the funds in your former employer’s plan (if permitted).
Evaluate Creditor Protection
Employer-sponsored plans usually offer stronger creditor protection than IRAs. If this is a concern, maintaining your retirement funds within your current employer’s plan or rolling them into a new employer’s plan could offer greater protection.
Consult a Tax Professional
Given the complex tax landscape, consulting a tax advisor is advisable. They can guide you through the tax ramifications of your rollover so you may make decisions that are in line with your financial objectives.
Be Cautious with Employer Stock
If your 401K includes employer stock, be cautious with your rollover decisions. Transferring employer stock to an IRA may have unfavorable tax consequences. Consult a financial advisor for guidance.
Account for Higher Education Expenses
In certain situations, you might consider taking early withdrawals for higher education expenses without incurring the 10% penalty for those under 59½. However, such withdrawals are still subject to income tax.
It’s important to carefully analyze the tax implications, your particular financial circumstances, and your retirement objectives when navigating the complexities of rolling over your 401(k). Consider asking experts in the subject for guidance to make sure you choose wisely.
Effective retirement planning requires knowing how to roll over your 401(k) after leaving your employment. Numerous factors must be taken into account during this procedure, including vesting, employer payments, and any potential effects on state and federal income taxes.
By selecting a qualified financial institution to facilitate the rollover, you can navigate the complexities and avoid unnecessary taxes.
Remember that a direct rollover from your employer’s qualified retirement plan to an eligible retirement account can help you avoid paying taxes and penalties while ensuring your funds remain dedicated to your retirement goals. To ensure that the decisions you make on this journey are in line with your financial future, seek the advice of experts and abide by the IRS’s regulations.